Any charge transfer between a solid electrode and the contacting electrolyte solution occurs through the interfacial liquid. The latter therefore plays a crucial role in the efficiency of devices that rely on liquid electrolytes. This is the case, for example, for certain types batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells. Even in biology, ionic networks developing on certain membranes have long been predicated to guide or trap charged in order to improve the cell bio-energetics
Generally, the molecular organisation of ions at functionally relevant interfaces is still poorly understood, whether for metal ions in aqueous solution or pure ionic liquids. Most model provide a good description of the electrolyte (or ion) density and orientation perpendicular to the interface, but little is known about their lateral organisation, parallel to the the surface of the solid.Here we study the organisation and dynamics of ions at interfaces in solution. Although we focus mainly on model systems (e.g. metal ions in aqueous solution at the surface of crystals) we also investigate technology relevant systems such interfaces involving ionic liquids, functional dye-sensitized solar cells and the influence of ionic networks on the adsorption/desorption of molecules at the interface.